A modern DSSC is composed of a porous layer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, covered with a molecular dye that absorbs sunlight, like the chlorophyll in green leaves. The titanium dioxide is immersed under an electrolyte solution, above which is a platinum-based catalyst. As in a conventional alkaline battery, an anode (the titanium dioxide) and a cathode (the platinum) are placed on either side of a liquid conductor (the electrolyte). Sunlight passes through the transparent electrode into the dye layer where it can excite electrons that then flow into the titanium dioxide. The electrons flow toward the transparent electrode where they are collected for powering a load. After flowing through the external circuit, they are re-introduced into the cell on a metal electrode on the back, flowing into the electrolyte. The electrolyte then transports the electrons back to the dye molecules (Wikipedia).
The stability problems of the electrochemical process have largely been solved. Although the efficiency of the cells is lower than crystalline silica cells, the attractiveness of DSSC is only partly the energy production. The cells are architecturally super-attractive, need no grid connection, and can directly power the load.
Watch for further news on our DSSC factory coming up soon!